Europe is a continent that is part of Eurasia and is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Comprising the westernmost peninsulas of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Africa and Asia. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.


                    10.18 million km2

                    3.93 million sq mi



                   188/sq mi


  • A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity, Judaism, the Renaissance, and its Humanism, the political thinking of the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution, and the developments of Modernity, including all types of socialism
  • A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism during the “Great Divergence” 
  • A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty of the individual.
  • A plurality of states with different political orders, which are feeding each other with new ideas
  • Respect for peoples, states, and nations outside Europe.3.93 million


Winters—much colder and longer, with greater snow cover, than in western Europe—are coldest in the northeast.

Summers are hottest in the southeast.

The January to July mean temperatures range approximately from 50 to 70 °F (10 to 21 °C).


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